The Museum of the Branch of Ground Base Air Defence
Where we are, now?
This place is the Museum of the Branch of Ground Base Air Defence (shortly GBAD). Originally, on this site situated an Air Defence Missile Battalion, which was equipped a type of middle-range missile facilities, especially type was Surface to Air Missile (shortly SAM).
Some information about air defence classification. Nowadays it categorised in four groups. The basic of the classification is the range of the missile. The first category is the very short-range missile, with effective range is until five kilometres. The second category is the short-range missile, with effective range is from five to thirty kilometres. The next category is the middle-range missile, with effective range is from thirty to one hundred and fifty kilometres. Finally yet importantly is the long-range missile, with effective range is over than one hundred and fifty kilometres (for example PATRIOT system).
Let us return to this place. This area declared scheduled monument in 2005. We would like to preserve for the after-ages. They should have to know what the Air Defence was in the twentieth century in Europe, in Hungary. Because our mission to show every relics from these ages.
To understanding, what the deal is, I would like to brief you from Air Defence Branches. The branch consists of Air Defence troop, support and service troops. The main part was the Air Defence troop, which activity helped with the reconnaissance troops (support troop). The reconnaissance troops were fitting with Radio Locator facilities. They monitored the air space above the surface. The service troops were consisting of signal, engineer and supply subunits.
At the same time we must not forget that the earliest time of the air defence’ history was not air defence missile, yet. At the beginning of the 20th century when the air war was born, the air defence activity appeared each time with them. At an early stage, the facilities of the air defence were the guns of the artillery from the battlefield. After some transformation of these guns were
good enough for the primitive air defence activity. As the aircrafts were developed, the tools of air defence developed also. Nowadays, the air defence-artillery is an integral part of the Armed Forces. Therefore, you can see some air defence-artillery guns in the exhibition hall.
As I mentioned, on this area established a middle-range missile battalion, which was part of the Air Defence system around Budapest from 1960 to 1997, throughout near forty years. The Air Defence system consisted of mixed SAM units. It types of facilities were the “IGLA” (very short-range missile – from 500m to 4,500m), the “NYEVA” (short-range missile – 2,500m to 25 km), the “VOLHOV” (middle-range missile- from 3,500m to 45 km) and the “VEGA” (long-range missile – from 7 km to 257 km).
These air-defence missile appliances were able to destroy the aerial targets, which were hostile. Their altitude may be from 20m to 40 km. It is very large provender.
This area, where the Museum was established, was the fighting area of the Air Defence Battalion. We can find on this area the states of the air defence facilities. If we walk around the 15 acre area, we can see the main stages (command and control point for the equipment of control system – this is the centre of the battalion; two reconnaissance points for the Recce equipment; six launcher area for the missiles and supplementary parts